First public records: dolmens, menhirs, rock paintings. Quipu, Wampun and winter counts: mnemonics. Types of substrates: archaeological and paleographic. Clay, wood, papyrus and parchment: formats, writing techniques and tools.Scroll and codex: characteristics and parts. Codex production. Types of codex binding. Renaissance manuscripts. Paper: xylographic and typographic printings. Typographic and incunabula books: characteristics, print run, subject matters. Incunabula typefaces: Gothic and Romans. Italics and small format editions.
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