Dingbats and decorative elements as elements of the typographic case. Function and types of dingbats and decorative elements. Double function: characters or image. Letters as images or characters. Relations.
Typeface family as a system. Aspects to be considered when designing a related group of characters: choosing the historical and cultural context, structural relations, stroke and terminal features. character weight and word color, distinctive characters and terminals. Axes for the construction of styles.
Definitions and interaction. Issues to be considered when deciding on the different features that constitute the family. Division of the problem in: structure, stroke and counters, terminals. Resulting identity.
Production technology and its influence on shapes. Trajan capitals and their establishment as a model. Basic structures and common width groups. Groups by morphological relation. Historical and contemporary widths.
Text composition: manual, mechanical and digital. How to obtain the printing surface. Aspects to consider in desktop-publishing typesetting. Fonts. Characteristics of different formats and their implications in visualization and printing. Font installation.
Definition of type size, historical origin and current situation. Type size, kp measure, and shoulder. Type size and optical size. Line spacing and leading. Units of measurement and conversion. Measuring instrument.
Origin, relationships, and connotations of uppercase and lowercase systems. Vertical relations. Uppercase and lowercase legibility. Formal characteristics and function of numerals. Diacritic marks, punctuation and other sorts: shape and placing. Fractions.
Definition. Family as a system. Components of the typographic case. Typographic styles. Basis for the construction of styles: historical and contemporary. Review of aspects that are maintained or modified in the variable system.
Historical styles of calligraphy. Main characteristics - structure, stroke and terminals. Letter weight. Estimation of pen width based on size and style. Space relations and text color. Combination of uppercase and lowercase.
Physiological and cultural aspects that converge in visual perception. Mechanism of vision and visual space exploration. Review of Gestalt laws and other contributions. Optical, geometrical and organic aspects that play a role in perception. Rhythm and its influence on perception an reading.